By Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu
Low Reynolds quantity aerodynamics is critical to a few average and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and bugs were of curiosity to biologists for years, and energetic examine within the aerospace engineering neighborhood, inspired by way of curiosity in micro air autos (MAVs), has been expanding speedily. the first concentration of this publication is the aerodynamics linked to mounted and flapping wings. The ebook reflect on either organic flyers and MAVs, together with a precis of the scaling laws-which relate the aerodynamics and flight features to a flyer's sizing at the foundation of straightforward geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interaction among flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters similar to the Reynolds quantity, Strouhal quantity, and diminished frequency is highlighted. a few of the unsteady raise enhancement mechanisms also are addressed, together with modern vortex, swift pitch-up and rotational circulate, wake trap, and clap-and-fling.
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Additional resources for Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers
2 Wingspan Often, when flapping animals are studied, parameters of interest are related to the body mass m of the animal. Using the dimensional argument method, assuming geometric similarity for the animals considered, one can determine a relation between the wingspan and the mass. 704m1/3 (birds). 3 Wing Area Norberg (1990) reports that the wing area between groups of animals shows larger variations than the wingspan. 1. As for the wingspan, hummingbirds have the largest deviation from the geometrical relation.
In accordance with the Lifting Line Theory (Jones, 1990), the lift on a wing is related to the strength of the bound vortex. The trailing vortices (the tip vortices) are of the same circulation magnitude as the bound vortex. At the beginning/end of the downstroke, when the flapping velocity changes direction, a transverse vortex (starting/stopping vortex) is produced at the trailing edge, and, according to Kelvin’s circulation theorem, these two transverse vortices connect the two tip vortices and result in the shedding of a vortex ring.
The birds modulate their wingbeat kinematics among these phases and frequently exhibit nonflapping phases while decelerating. They find that, during steady-speed flight, wing-beat frequency does not change appreciably with horizontal flight speed. Instead, the body angle relative to the horizontal decreases with increasing flight speed, thereby illustrating P1: SBT 9780521882781c01 CUFX190/Shyy 14 978 0 521 88278 1 September 10, 2007 14:36 Introduction that the dominant function of wing flapping changes from weight support at slow speeds to positive thrust at fast speeds.
Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers by Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu