By Howard P. Kainz Ph. D. (auth.)
A. "SEPARATE components" AND lOR" ANGELS"? it's attention-grabbing to notice that, in an expressly theological treatise similar to the Summa theologiae, St. Thomas quite often makes use of the time period "angel", instead of "separate substance"; whereas in works with a much less particular theological motive - e. g. the Summa contra gentiles and the De substantiis separatis 1 - he mostly prefers the time period "separate substance". yet at any price there's little question that the 2 phrases, "separate sub stance" and "angel" have a undeniable interchangeability and equivalence within the works of St. Thomas. In different phrases, "the separate substance" is reminiscent of "the angel, insofar as its lifestyles and attributes are knowable via human cause alone". And this has led Karl Barth 2 to cost that St. Thomas' angelology is essentially a philosophical presenta tion, with little relevance to theology. 1 we would say that those works are "philosophical" insofar as arguments from cause are emphasised in them, instead of arguments from revelation or religion. although, as Lescoe issues out (in the advent to his variation of the De substantUs separatis, p. 8), the treatise on separate ingredients leads as much as theological subject-matter in Ch. 's XVII ff- specifically, an exposition of Catholic educating as present in Sacred Scripture, the Fathers, and particularly Dionysius. And Chenu keeps that the Summa contra gentiles is largely a theological paintings, since it not just leads as much as theological subject-matter in Bk.
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Additional info for “Active and Passive Potency” in Thomistic Angelology
9 De Subst. , Ch. IX, § 48, p. 86 : "Ultra hune modum fiendi necesse est secundum sententiam Platonis et Aristotelis ponere alium altiorem ... Oportet ... supra modum fiendi quo aliquid fit, forma materiae adveniente, praeintelligere aliam rerum originem, secundum quod esse attribuitur toti universitati rerum a primo ente quod est suum esse". 34 THE THOMISTIC DOCTRINE ON POTENCY existence - a ground which becomes at the same time a mode of expressing existence. And "essence" supplies such a ground.
De Subst. , Ch. XIX, § 113 : "Relinquitur quod ... [Angelicae] ... substantiae operatio et per consequens substantia omnino sint extra omnem temporalem successionem". 2 In III De Anima, Lect. x, § 732. THE POWERS OF SEPARATE SUBSTANCES 47 "active power" in their regard, might be to say that they are "frozen" in a state of dynamic perfection. The various perfections that we conceive as being added to them, are possessed by them in a quasi-eternal way. Being outside and ontologically above the sphere of time, they comprehend time per eminentiam; and there is nothing which is new in the material universe or the intellects of men, which has not already been fully worked out, perfectly comprehended, in some way, in the intellects of separate substances 3.
B. MEANS OF DEMONSTRATION PROPOSED BY ST. THOMAS 1. The Aristotelian method Aristotle proceeded to the investigation of separate substances by the "most manifest and certain way" available to us, namely, through observation of physical motion. Seeing that all physical agents had to be moved from outside, and seeing that all the multifarious manifestations of motion we see - for example, generation, alteration, augmentation - were traceable in the final analysis to 6 7 S. , I, Q. III, Art. I, ad 3.
“Active and Passive Potency” in Thomistic Angelology by Howard P. Kainz Ph. D. (auth.)